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It was not until 1860 and after several pandemics of Asiatic cholera that effective sewage systems were built in the metropoles.
Message: Multiple efforts to improve milk quality culminated in the International gouttes de lait Congresses for the Study and Prevention of Infantile Mortality. Karger AG, Basel During the industrial revolution in the first half of the 19th century, the European population doubled, and the proportion of city dwellers rose to 50%.
Instruments used in the 19th century to prove milk falsification. In order to disguise its bad qualities and render it saleable, it is necessary to give it color and consistence...
Starch, sugar, flour, plaster of Paris, chalk, eggs, anatto, etc. more than three fourths of the infants born in our cities are sustained in whole or in part on artificial diet' .
All over Europe, a plethora of ‘lactometers' was developed to detect falsifications. The distillery waste slop was fed to cows which became sick and produced thin and contaminated swill milk.
Martiny's monograph on milk of 1871 devoted 51 pages to these devices , some of which are depicted in figure 1. Robert Hartley, secretary of the New York Association for Improving the Conditions of the Poor, described the situation in his city in 1842: ‘During the winter season, about two thousand cows are said to be kept on the premises...