Dating stages discovery stage

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In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the bladder.These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.For bladder cancer, regional chemotherapy may be intravesical (put into the bladder through a tube inserted into the urethra).The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

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Cancer has spread from the bladder to (a) the layer of fat around the bladder and may have spread to the prostate and/or seminal vesicles in men or the uterus and/or vagina in women, and cancer has not spread to lymph nodes; or (b) one lymph node in the pelvis that is not near the common iliac arteries. In stage IVA, cancer has spread from the bladder to (a) the wall of the abdomen or pelvis; or (b) lymph nodes above the common iliac arteries.The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials.A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer.

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